This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of science competence as laid out in the standards. We first discuss the notion of competence in general and of science competence in particular. We then present a selection of results with respect to competence modelling. Finally, we critically review the impact of this research on teaching and show perspectives for future studies and classroom practise.