What’s about the Calibration between Confidence and Accuracy? Findings in Probabilistic Problems from Italy and Spain
Mirian Agus 1 * , Maribel Peró-Cebollero 2, Joan Guàrdia-Olmos 2, Igor Portoghese 1, Maria Lidia Mascia 1, Maria Pietronilla Penna 1
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1 University of Cagliari - Faculty of Humanistic Studies, ITALY2 Department of Social and Quantitative Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, SPAIN* Corresponding Author


This paper reports some experiments on probabilistic reasoning designed to investigate the impact of the probabilistic problem presentation format (verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial) on subjects’ confidence in the correctness of their performance, other than the calibration between confidence and accuracy. To understand the potential effect of the format, these dimensions were assessed by monitoring contextual and individual variables: time pressure, numerical and visuospatial abilities, statistical anxiety and attitudes towards statistics. The participants included 257 Psychology students without statistical knowledge, recruited from Italian and Spanish universities, who fulfilled self-report validated measures. The students expressed their retrospective judgments of confidence item-by-item in relation to each probabilistic problem. This approach enabled the computation of two measures of calibration (the Bias Index - the Confidence-Judgment Accuracy Quotient). The results indicated that the problem presentation format did not exert a significant main effect on confidence, with the exception of when the interaction between the format and one subscale of the attitudes towards the statistics test was considered. The Bias Index, however, was significantly related to the interaction between format and time pressure. The study offers a point of reflection in relation to the potential effect exerted by the problem format and time constraint in calibration.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 16, Issue 2, February 2020, Article No: em1820


Publication date: 09 Dec 2019

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