A large sample (n = 1,799) of Qatari female and male students at the preparatory, secondary, and university levels responded to Likert items about their interest, attitude, and self-efficacy regarding science. The items were similar to those of TIMSS and PISA, but improved upon them in several ways. The findings suggest that Qatari students are positive in their interest, attitude, and self-efficacy, but not as positive as TIMSS and PISA report. The findings raise an important question: If the students’ interest, attitude, and self-efficacy are positive, then why do the students have relatively low achievement scores on TIMSS and PISA? The answer may be the instructional methods and conditions of a developing educational system. The present findings have implications for all countries that use TIMSS and PISA, particularly those countries with developing educational systems, rapidly expanding economies, and an increasing need for students in science careers.
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