Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is a crucial skill for students and people entering the workforce. Hence, an online CPS assessment system was developed for the Programme for International Student Assessment to test 12 CPS skills. This study compared the CPS skills of students on the basis of a CPS assessment developed for science scenarios in Taiwan. Moreover, a sequential analysis was applied to explore the behavioral patterns of students with CPS skills. The results demonstrated that most Taiwanese students are proficient in the 11 CPS skills (except for D3: “Monitoring, providing feedback and adapting the team organisation and roles”), and that female students are significantly more proficient than male students. The results also indicated that most students can successfully transition between CPS skills. However, the students in a given class may demonstrate a lack of behavioral patterns. Teachers can design activities and develop strategies to address this lack of behavioral patterns and thus increase students’ CPS skills and behavioral patterns.