Development and validation of the secondary mathematics teachers’ TPACK scale: A study in the Chinese context
Mao Li 1 * , Abdul Qawi Noori 2 , Yanxi Li 1
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1 School of Curriculum, Teaching and Inclusion, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA2 School of Education, Culture and Society, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA* Corresponding Author


This study aimed to develop and validate the secondary mathematics teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) scale (SMTTS) to assess the knowledge domains of TPACK framework among secondary mathematics teachers in China. SMTTS was designed to be subject-oriented and culturally relevant, addressing the specific needs and context of mathematics education in China. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire from secondary mathematics teachers in Chongqing Jiulongpo District. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. The findings demonstrated that SMTTS exhibited strong reliability and validity, supporting its use as a robust measurement tool for assessing secondary mathematics teachers’ TPACK. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties, including satisfactory factor loadings, internal consistency, and model fit indices. The development of SMTTS contributes to the field by providing a precise and reliable instrument that can inform the design of targeted professional development programs and guide policy decisions regarding technology integration in mathematics education. This study has theoretical and practical implications. SMTTS addresses the need for a subject-specific and culturally relevant assessment tool for measuring TPACK in mathematics education. It acknowledges mathematics teachers’ unique challenges in integrating digital technologies into their instructional practices. The scale’s development and validation process incorporated considerations of the Chinese educational context, enhancing its relevance for practitioners and researchers in China. SMTTS can facilitate the identification of areas for improvement in teachers’ TPACK and guide the implementation of tailored interventions and support initiatives.


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Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2023, Volume 19, Issue 11, Article No: em2350

Publication date: 01 Nov 2023

Online publication date: 11 Sep 2023

Article Views: 1378

Article Downloads: 856

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