This study determined perspectives of students and their teachers regarding ideal mathematics teaching using questionnaires. The sample included 2437 Taiwanese and 1141 Chinese senior high school students and their mathematics teachers. Exploratory, confirmatory, and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to determine the factors contributing to ideal teaching behaviors. Thirteen factors in six dimensions were identified. Five involved the influence of Western culture and were endorsed (e.g., concrete and life-related in representation); five are inherent in traditional Chinese culture and were endorsed (e.g., detailed illustration in teaching method); and three are inherent in Chinese culture but were less endorsed because of Western influences (e.g., speedy challenge in problem-solving). Few intracultural differences regarding students’ and teachers’ endorsements were discovered. However, students’ higher endorsement of formal and symbolic representation and performance demand in assessment than their teachers’ reflected their desire for high academic achievement, which is deeply rooted in Chinese culture.