Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model: A mixed-method systematic review of research in mathematics education
Saidat Morenike Adeniji 1 2 * , Penelope Baker 1 , Martin Schmude 1
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1 University of New England, Armidale, AUSTRALIA2 University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NIGERIA* Corresponding Author


The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) standard to search and report relevant articles on the use of SOLO model in mathematics. A systematic search was conducted in Education Source, ERIC, JSTOR, and PsycINFO databases and yielded 198 studies. After screening and appraisal, 62 papers (37 qualitative, 17 quantitative, and 8 mixed-method studies) published in English between 1990 and 2020 were reported using a narrative synthesis.  The findings indicated that SOLO model appropriately reflects students' learning outcomes; there is a direct relationship between students’ performances and their SOLO levels; and SOLO model could explain several other developmental theories and contribute to the development of mathematics curricula. These findings highlight the gaps between theory and practice of this model in mathematics education, and informs education professionals about the diverse applications of the SOLO model for improving mathematics teaching and learning, fair assessment, and curriculum development.


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Article Type: Review Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 18, Issue 6, June 2022, Article No: em2119

Publication date: 14 May 2022

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