The major objective of this study was to examine the effect of Ethiopian pre-service primary school teacher education program to mathematics teacher’s knowledge and assess teacher educator’s awareness about Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research approaches. It was also used survey and narration research design. The population of this study were all third-year pre-service teacher classes in generalist, specialist and linear modality classes in three sampled colleges of teacher education such as: Kotebe Metropolitan University, Hawassa College of teacher education and Arba Minch college of teacher education. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The result showed that program type has no effect on the mean scores between specialist and linear students in Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching scale. Significant difference was not observed in mean score of Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching test against gender. The findings also showed that teacher educators have no enough knowledge/awareness about the term Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching and its components. Thus, the study suggested that successive training should be organized to train teacher educators about Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching and mathematics pedagogies and recent mathematics education theories in general.