Currently not many people would doubt that computers play an essential role in both public and private life in many countries. However, somewhat surprisingly, evidence of computer use is difficult to find in German state schools although other countries have managed to implement computer-based teaching and learning in their schools. This paper attempts to understand the reasons for this phenomenon and to show that more research and development on computer-based teaching and learning should be done. It starts with some comments on the importance of computer-based learning, followed by a description of the development of ICT in education since the 1990s in Germany and the general situation at public schools. After focusing on the frame of educational policy in Germany, the situation in schools, including the person of the teacher, is then reflected upon and compared to the situation in other countries. Finally, current developments of computer-based learning in chemistry education in Germany are discussed and a frame of further research is proposed.